Day 2 :
Barton College, USA
Tim Dornemann is an assistant professor in the exercise science program at Barton College. In addition to his academic responsibilities, Dornemann is currently the director of sports performance, where he oversees the strength and conditioning of 21 athletic teams. His research interests include exploring use of vibration training and rotary inertial training for athletic development. Dornemann has had two books published by Linus Publishing – “PowerRev ‘Four Laws of Victory’ Character Development Program: Build Successful Teams and Athletes by Teaching Lessons That Transcend Sports” and “PowerRev Youth Athletic Development Program: Building Champions in Sports and in Life.” His third book, “Russian Vibration Training: The Mikheev Method,” was published by Heathy Learning. Through International Performance Sciences, Dornemann has worked with the Philippine Olympic Committee and India national wrestling team. He serves as a member of the United States Sports Academy’s national faculty and has taught for the academy in Malaysia and Thailand
Statement of the Problem: The global market for nutritional supplements and ergogenic aids is expected to exceed 8 billion dollars by 2020. The sport supplement industry is driven by marketing, and the average consumer is unaware of which products are truly are beneficial and which are not. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: As the leading organization in the field of sports nutrition the International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) has gathered and reviewed the scientific body of literature available and issued key position statements. In particular, the ISSN position statements on protein and exercise, nutrient timing, and exercise and sport nutrition review: research and recommendations serve as guides for best practices in the industry. The information provided in these statements provides a critical view on what supplements have been scientifically shown to be beneficial for use by athletes. Not surprisingly the ISSN list of “apparently effective” supplements and ergogenic aids is not long. Conclusion & Significance: In the field of nutrition research is constantly evolving and shaping our views. At the time that ISSN issued these positions stands the “apparently effective” supplements and ergogenic aids included vitamins and minerals, carbohydrates, protein, electrolytes, creatine monohydrate, water, caffeine, sodium phosphate, and sodium bicarbonate.
University of Western States, USA
Dr. Brad Johnson is an international speaker in the fields of fitness and education. Dr. Johnson is author of 6 books including, Learning on Your Feet: Incorporating Physical Activity into the K-8 Classroom (Routledge). Dr. Johnson teaches courses in Advanced Health & Wellness as well as Human Performance for Western States University and the University System of Georgia. He recently spent time in Malaysia developing a fitness diploma with their Ministry of Education. He trained teachers throughout Malaysia to incorporate more fitness into the classroom.
Statement of the Problem: Dieting may not be effective because there is an assumption that everyone has same caloric needs and that restricting caloric intake is universal for everyone. One factor that influences the effectiveness of caloric restriction and dieting is the differences in body shapes. For example, some body shapes, such as apple shape, are insulin sensitive and higher carbohydrate consumption can lead to increased weight gain, even while dieting. Another factor has been the increase in process foods, including diet foods, as well as a change in the food pyramid since the 1970’s to increase the intake of carbohydrates. The increase in carbohydrate consumption has led to an increase of chronic inflammation within the body. This increase in inflammation is a primary cause of most illness, disease, faster aging and weight gain/obesity.
- Sports Food and Energy Drinks
University of Witwatersrand, School of Governance, Johannesburg, South Africa
Darlene Miller is a Senior Lecturer at the Wits School of Governance. She obtained her Doctorate in Sociology at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. Her research is multi-didviplinary, with a specific interest in food retailing, food movements and the regional political economy in South Africa. Gary Gabriels is a Research Scientist at the University of Cape Town (UCT). He obtained his Doctorate in Pharmacology (UCT). His broader research interest is in the area of Consumer Protection, related to prohibited substance contamination and/or adulteration, content validity, and information and knowledge provided on Nutritional and Traditional Supplement product labels.
Nutritional supplements (sports food) are used by competitive and recreational athletes of all ages. These are often people in predominantly affluent communities, who can afford the cost of nutritional supplements. The situation is further exacerbated by the general pressure placed on certain groups to use supplements. Young sports participants who are engaged in developmental and competitive phases of sport, in particular, encounter peer pressure to use supplements and to enhance body image. As a consequence the supplement industry has grown to meet the increasing demand. Food movements on the other hand, are a growing and a diverse phenomenon globally. In South Africa, where the youth are the majority of the large unemployed sector, job creation for youth in poor communities is a key development goal. Recently there is evidence of a socio-cultural shift where young people have become involved in urban food gardens. There is a high level of bodily awareness, often with less access to formal sporting facilities. Township youth may thus redirect their ideas of a good body-image into new urban food movements. These youth may consume sports food and energy drinks if they are able to purchase these items. The research objective is to explore the supplement and energy drink labels and other sources of information that influence purchasing decisions and trends that may contribute to the body- image aspiration, in the respective communities.
University of Chichester, Department of Sport & Exercise Sciences, UK
Mark completed his PhD in 1994 from the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam (Netherlands). Since 2003, I have been working at the University of Chichester (UK). His current research interests are focused on eccentric-contraction induced muscle injury, muscle fatigue, and sports nutrition. He is on the advisory editorial board of the European Journal of Applied Physiology, and the editorial board of the European Journal of Sport Science, and the Journal of Sports Medicine. Mark is a Fellow of the European College of Sports Science.
New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) extract reduced slowing of the maximal 15 m sprint speed during the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (Willems et al., 2016). We examined the effect of NZBC extract on performance of the Running Based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST, 6 x 35 sprints with 10 seconds passive recovery) in elite and non-elite football players. Fifteen non-elite (University team) (age: 20±1 years, height: 174±19 cm, body mass: 80±13 kg) and nine elite players (English professional club youth team) (age: 17±0 years, height: 178±8 cm, body mass: 69±9 kg, mean±SD) participated in three testing sessions. Prior to the RASTs, participants consumed 2 capsules of NZBC extract (600 mg∙day-1 CurraNZ™) or placebo (P) (microcrystalline cellulose M102) for 7 days (double blind, randomised, cross-over design, wash-out at least 7 days). Ability difference between elite and non-elite players was shown by sprint 1 time. In the placebo condition, elite players had faster times for sprint 1 (5.00±0.05 s) than non-elite (5.42±0.08 s) (P<0.01). In elite players, NZBC extract reduced slowing of the sprint 5 time (P: 0.56±0.22 s; NZBC: 0.35±0.25, P=0.015) and this was not observed in non-elite players (P: 0.57±0.48 s; NZBC: 0.56±0.33, P=0.90). Fatigue index, expressed as a % change in maximum power to the slowest sprint, was overall lower by NZBC extract (P: 29.5±11.95; NZBC: 26.0±12.0%, P=0.043) with 12 participants (5 elite) experiencing less fatigue. New Zealand blackcurrant extract seems to benefit repeated sprint performance more in elite than non-elite football players
Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Pharmacology, Auburn University, USA
Henri Alexandre Giblot Ducray has graduated cum laude from the St. Ambrose University, Iowa, with a B.Sc. in Biology with a Biomedical Science concentration and is currently pursuing a PhD at Auburn University, Alabama, in Anatomy, Physiology, and Pharmacology department. He is a graduate research assistant for Dr. Sorokulova and has been involved in several of her research projects.
Temperature is one of the most challenging factors affecting human health. Road workers, military personnel and athletes are all at high risk of heat stroke during intense outdoor physical activity. Exposure to heat results in a multitude of pathological and physiological responses which should be properly managed to prevent serious injuries or even death. Different approaches have been proposed for mitigation of heat-induced adverse effects, among which are special diets, probiotics, etc. We examined the effect of the yeast fermentate EpiCor (EH) on the prevention of heat stress-induced adverse events in rats. We found that an increase in body temperature of animals, by exposure to heat stress conditions, resulted in significant morphological changes in the intestine. Treatment of rats with EH before heat stress prevented the traumatic effects of heat on the intestine. Changes in intestinal morphology of stressed rats pre-treated with PBS resulted in significant elevation of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) levels in the serum of these animals. Pre-treatment with EH was effective in prevention of LPS release into the blood of rats exposed to heat. Finally, the study showed that elevation of body temperatures resulted in a significant increase in the concentration of vesicles in the blood of control rats, indicating a pathological impact by heat on erythrocyte structure. Treatment of rats with EH completely protected their erythrocytes from this pathology. Overall, the results showed the protective effect of the yeast fermentate in preventing heat-induced adverse effects.